# The evidence lower bound (ELBO)

** Published:**

*The evidence lower bound is an important quantity at the core of a number of important algorithms used in statistical inference including expectation-maximization and variational inference. In this post, I describe its context, definition, and derivation.*

## Introduction

The **evidence lower bound (ELBO)** is an important quantity that lies at the core of a number of important algorithms in probabilistic inference such as expectation-maximization and variational infererence. To understand these algorithms, it is helpful to understand the ELBO.

Before digging in, let’s review the probabilistic inference task for a latent variable model. In a latent variable model, we posit that our observed data $x$ is a realization from some random variable $X$. Moreoever, we posit the existence of another random variable $Z$ where $X$ and $Z$ are distributed according to a joint distribution $p(X, Z; \theta)$ where $\theta$ parameterizes the distribution. Unfortunately, our data is *only* a realization of $X$, not $Z$, and therefore $Z$ remains unobserved (i.e. latent).

There are two predominant tasks that we may be interested in accomplishing:

- Given some fixed value for $\theta$, compute the posterior distribution $p(Z \mid X ; \theta)$
- Given that $\theta$ is unknown, find the maximum likelihood estimate of $\theta$:

where $l(\theta)$ is the log-likelihood function:

\[l(\theta) := \log p(x ; \theta) = \log \int_z p(x, z; \theta) \ dz\]Variational inference is used for Task 1 and expectation-maximization is used for Task 2. Both of these algorithms rely on the ELBO.

## What is the ELBO?

To understand the evidence lower bound, we must first understand what we mean by “evidence”. The **evidence**, quite simply, is just a name given to the likelihood function evaluated at a fixed $\theta$:

Why is this quantity called the “evidence”? Intuitively, if we have chosen the right model $p$ and $\theta$, then we would expect that the marginal probability of our observed data $x$, would be high. Thus, a higher value of $\log p(x ; \theta)$ indicates, in some sense, that we may be on the right track with the model $p$ and parameters $\theta$ that we have chosen. That is, this quantity is “evidence” that we have chosen the right model for the data.

If we happen to also know (or posit) that $Z$ follows some distribution denoted by $q$ (and that $p(x, z; \theta) := p(x \mid z ; \theta)q(z)$), then the evidence lower bound is, well, just a lower bound on the evidence that makes use of the known (or posited) $q$. Specifically,

\[\log p(x ; \theta) \geq E_{Z \sim q}\left[\log \frac{p(x,Z; \theta)}{q(Z)} \right]\]where the ELBO is simply the right-hand side of the above inequality:

\[{ELBO} := E_{Z \sim q}\left[\log \frac{p(x,Z; \theta)}{q(Z)} \right]\]## Derivation

We derive this lower bound as follows:

\[\begin{align*}\log p(x; \theta) &= \log \int p(x, z; \theta) \ dz \\ &= \log \int p(x, z; \theta) \frac{q(z)}{q(z)} \ dz \\ &= \log E_{Z\sim q} \left[ \frac{p(x, Z)}{q(z)}\right] \\ &\geq E_{Z\sim q} \left[\log \frac{p(x, Z)}{q(z)}\right]\end{align*}\]This final inequality follows from Jensen’s Inequality.

## The gap between the evidence and the ELBO

It turns out that the gap between the evidence and the ELBO is precisely the Kullback-Leibler divergence between $p(z \mid x; \theta)$ and $q(z)$. This fact forms the basis of the variational inference algorithm for approximate Bayesian inference!

This can be derived as follows:

\[\begin{align*}KL(q(z) \ \mid \mid p(z \mid x; \theta)) &:= E_{Z \sim q}\left[\log \frac{q(Z)}{p(Z \mid x; \theta)} \right] \\ &= E_{Z \sim q}\left[\log q(Z) \right] - E_{Z \sim q}\left[\log \frac{p(x, Z; \theta)}{p(x; \theta)} \right] \\ &= E_{Z \sim q}\left[\log q(Z) \right] - E_{Z \sim q}\left[\log p(x, Z; \theta) \right] + E_{Z \sim q}\left[\log p(x; \theta) \right] \\ &= \log p(x; \theta) - E_{Z\sim q} \left[\log \frac{p(x, Z; \theta)}{q(z)}\right] \\ &= \text{evidence} - \text{ELBO}\end{align*}\]